The genus citrus whose common term is citric designates species of large evergreen shrubs or small trees (5 to 15 m) with fruits or fruit, of the family Rutaceae, have a high content of vitamin C and citric acid, which provides the characteristic sour taste so characteristic.
This genus contains three species and many cultivated hybrids, including the most widely traded fruits, such as lemon, orange, lime, grapefruit, tangerine, with several varieties that depend on the region where it is grown each .
Varieties of orange
Usually leaves of orange trees are lanceolate, broad, large and leathery. They have entire margins and usually a slightly rounded base and acute apex. The petiole is short and jointed with limbo and usually wingless or very rudimentary.
.- Group Navel Orange flowers of this variety are large and occur singly or in clusters. The anthers of this variety are pale yellow or creamy white, without pollen grains (not pollinate other variety) due to destruction of the stem cells that form. In the ovary, of cylindrical shape, a degeneration of the embryo sac takes place giving rise to fruit without seeds (parthenocarpic).
Also has a second whorl carpel developed that creates a new fruit included in the main, which can appear in the stylar cortex region with a shape reminiscent of the umbilicus (navel).
- Washington Navel
- Navel Caracara
- Navel Lane Late
- Navel Ricalate
.- Group Blood Flowers Group of orange varieties encompassed in the blood group are large with yellow anthers. They have the virtue of being able to appear out of season fruits resulting in different size, crust color (unpigmented) and less juice content.
The ovaries are fusiform and fruits have the distinction of having a red pigment that colors the pulp and rind. Generally the pigmentation is not uniform, with no internal / external correlation. It has usually no more than 6 seeds per fruit.
- Double Fine
. – Group White Are characterized by flowers of medium/large size. What stamens have yellow colored anthers with a lot of pollen. The fruits have coloration from yellow-orange to orange and are spherical or flattened shape.
This group could be called fine varieties or elite, with little or no seed, and others might call common white seeds in varying numbers. If they appear are poliembrióncas. The fruits are not navel without blood pigment.
Varieties of mandarin
.- Clementines Has a lanceolate leaves, broad, large, leathery, margins usually entire. The base is usually slightly rounded, apex acute. They are distinguished by a short petiole, jointed with limbo and usually wingless or very rudimentary.
The flowers are small and short stalk, with yellow anthers and abundant pollen grains. Ovaries generally are flattened.
The fruits are bright orange and spherical shape with an average size and usually seedless. The flesh is orange, leaving no waste to eat. Seeds, if present, are monoembryonic.
- Clementina Nules
.- Satsumas In this variety the leaves are lanceolate with the base and apex acute limbo. Leathery, with central and side very pronounced rib on the top and on the underside. Its petiole is long and slightly winged, articulated in limbo. When crushed give off a characteristic perfume.
The trees in this group are the last to bloom all variety but, on the contrary, are the first fruits to be harvested. The nice thing is that if early or late frosts are not affected. Some flowers have pale yellow or cream without pollen grains. Rarely appear in clusters, are often isolated.
The fruit is of good size with a flattened shape and salmon color, and has no seeds would be if they are polyembryonic. They have a thick, rough bark.
.- Hybrids Trees generally this group tend to be lush. The small flowers with yellow anthers and lots of pollen grains.
The fruits, good size, with a reddish pulp flux and a lot of juice with high sugar content and total acids. The bark is very adherent to the pulp. In some cases the fruit has a small umbilicus.
Varieties of grapefruit
Grapefruit leaves are lanceolate with the base and apex acute limbo. Leathery, with central and side very pronounced rib on the top and on the underside. Long and short winged petiole, jointed with limbo. When crushed give off a characteristic odor.
Grapefruits are very lush and vigorous trees from a spherical shape. The flowers are white, large, solitary or in axillary inflorescences. The antennas have abundant pollen grains.
The fruits are large, globose, oblate or pear. Its flavor is a mixture of sweet, bitter and sour.
Varieties of lemon
The leaves are lanceolate with the base and apex acute limbo. Leathery, with central and side very pronounced rib on the top and on the underside. Her long and short winged petiole, jointed with limbo. Squeezed off a characteristic odor.
The tree is a medium or small, open branches, which are usually, include size spines. The Neuvos outbreaks have a purple color in your home. Abundant hermaphrodite or staminate flowers are seen by more or less complete abortion of the pistil. The petals are purplish color on its outer face.
The lemon tree has no definite flowering period, reaching said that if conditions are favorable can bloom throughout the year. As fruit ripening is staggered analogously. The fruits are oval with a typical nipple in the apical area. Fruesa skin is yellow.
Its culture is more restricted to the tropics and subtropics and warm moist since it is very sensitive to cold. The lime tree is a tree vigor reduced, reaching 3-5 meters in height. Has shrub trend.
Its fruits are small, 3-6 cm in diameter, greenish-yellow color. The pulp is very acidic limes.
.- Limas acidic
- Limas ‘Tahiti’, ‘Persian’ or ‘Bearss’ group Citrus latifolia
- Limas ‘Key’ or ‘Mexican’ of Citrus aurantifolia group
.- Sweet Limes
- Dulce Lima India Citrus limettioides group.